Facts Facts



Official Name:Republic of India

National Anthem

Jana Gana Mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore

National Emblem


An uni-dimensional adaptation of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka, the emblem shows three lions (from the four which stand back-to-back on the original capital), and part of the frieze on the abacus i.e. the Wheel of the Law (Dharma) in the centre flanked by a horse and a bull.

The bell-shaped lotus which supports the original capital has been omitted and instead, inscribed below the abacus are the words "Satyameva Jayate" - "Truth Alone Triumphs" in the Devnagari script.

National Flag


Horizontal tricolor with deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom, in equal proportion. In the centre of the white band is a wheel in navy blue with 24 spokes. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three.

National Calendar

Based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days, the national calendar has a permanent correspondence with the Gregorian calendar with the first day of Chaitra falling on 22nd March (21st March in leap years)

Structure of the State

Union of 29 states and 6 Union Territories with the Central Government based in New Delhi

Political System

Multi-party parliamentary democracy, based on universal adult franchise


Bicameral legislature, with the Upper House known as the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lower House known as the Lok Sabha (Council of the People)

Last Elections

April-May 2014

Current Government

Bharatiya Janata Party - led Coalition

Major Political Parties

Bahujan Samaj Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
Communist Party od India
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Indian National Congress
National Congress Party
Rashtriya Janata Dal

Head of State


Shri Ram Nath Kovind, President of India

Head of Government


Shri Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India

Important Ministers

See List of India's Cabinet

Indian Standard Time (IST)

IST is equal to GMT + 5 1/2 hours. With reference to Serbia IST is plus 4 1/2 hours in winter and plus 3 1/2 hours in summer


3.29 million square kilometers


Tropical monsoon type with winter (Jan-Feb), summer (Mar-May), south-west monsoon season (Jun-Sep) and post-monsoon or north-east monsoon season (Oct-Dec). Most of the rainfall is brought by the south-west monsoon. Because of the geographical diversity of India, regional climate conditions in the extreme north, east and west vary from the general conditions given above


Countries having a common border with India are Pakistan and Afghanistan to the north-west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north, Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. Sri Lanka is separated from the southernmost tip of India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Major Cities/Towns

The traditional 4 metros are Delhi (population 10.05 mn), Mumbai (10 mn), Kolkata (11 mn) and Chennai (5.4 mn). Other cities like Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Lucknow, Ahmedabad and Kochi etc are rapidly developing into major centres of commerce and industry.


1,210 million (2011 census); Life expectancy

63.9 years for males and 66.9 years for females. Death rate 9 per 1000; birth rate 28.2 per 1000 Languages

Hindi is the official language, and English is widely used as a link language. In addition, there are 18 major languages recognized by the Constitution of India and about 844 other languages.




India is a secular country and has no state religion. Major religions represented in India include Hinduism (82%), Islam (12%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism (0.8%) and Jainism (0.4%)


Rupee (One Rupee=100 paise) Rate of exchange - USD 1 = approx. Rs. 66.9 (March 2016)

Fiscal Year

1st April to 31st March Mineral resources

Coal, crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, bauxite, limestone, manganese ore, magnetite, chromites, copper ore, zinc, lead, gold, mica, gypsum, tungsten, barytes, graphite, dolomite, kaolin, phosphates and many more, with considerable reserves yet to be exploited in most cases


Rice, wheat, coarse cereals, cotton, jute, sugarcane, oilseeds, pulses, a variety of fruits and vegetables, plantation crops (tea, coffee, various spices etc.), herbal and medicinal crops; animal husbandry and food processing are also well-developed sectors


Textiles and yarns (cotton, silk, jute, synthetics etc.), cement, rubber goods, engineering goods, electronics and heavy electrical products, automobiles, food processing, steel, fertilizers, mining, chemicals, paper and newsprint, drugs and pharmaceuticals, a variety of consumer goods industries and small and cottage industries,

Foreign Trade

GLOBAL TRADE (figs in USD bn)




































Major Trading Partners

India’s major trading partners are the UAE, USA, Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Netherland, Saudi Arabia, UK, Germany, Japan, Belgium,  Kuwait, Nigeria , Australia etc.

Major Exports

80% of the total exports comprise manufactured goods such as gems and jewellery, ready-made garments, cotton yarn and textiles, leather goods, automobile components, engineering products, chemicals and allied products, electronic products, transport equipment, marine products, agriculture and allied products, computer software

Major Imports

Of the total imports, capital goods and fuel each accounted for a quarter share. Other major imports are chemicals, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, newsprint, fertilizers, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals and professional instruments.

Foreign Direct Investment

India FDI inflows in 2014-15 was US$ 44.3 billion

Main Investors

About one third of approved FDI come from the United States. Other major investors include the UK, Republic of Korea, Japan, Germany, Australia, Netherlands, France, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Singapore, Malaysia and Sweden.